Hive的安装

一 安装环境

  • Hadoop 2.7.2
  • JDK 1.7 U79
  • Hive 2.1.0
  • Mysql(apt-get 安装)
  • 192.168.1.166为Mysql server meta server安装位置
  • 192.168.1.159为Hive数据仓库安装位置

二 Hive的安装-MySQL作为元数据库

  • 安装JDK-略过
  • 安装Hadoop-略过
  • 安装Mysql-略过

三 在192.168.1.166上建立Hive meta数据库,用户,赋予权限

mysql虚拟机的默认密码,在我做试验的时候是123456


$mysql -u root -p
mysql>grant all privileges on *.* to [email protected]"%" identified by "hive" with grant option;
mysql>flush privileges;
Mysql在Ubuntu中默认安装后,只能在本机访问,如果要开启远程访问,需要做以下两个步骤:
$nano /etc/mysql/my.cnf

找到bind-address=127.0.0.1 ,把这一行注释掉
$service mysql restart

四 在192.168.1.159上安装Hive

1 安装Hive

[email protected]:~$ sudo tar xvfz apache-hive-2.1.0-bin.tar.gz 
[email protected]:~$ sudo cp -R apache-hive-2.1.0-bin /usr/local/hive 
[email protected]:~$ sudo chmod -R 775 /usr/local/hive/
[email protected]:~$ sudo chown -R hadoop:hadoop /usr/local/hive

2 修改/etc/profile加入HIVE_HOME的变量

export HIVE_HOME=/usr/local/hive
export PATH=$PATH:$HIVE_HOME/bin
export CLASSPATH=.:${JAVA_HOME}/lib:${JRE_HOME}/lib:/usr/local/hive/lib
$source /etc/profile

3 修改hive/conf下的几个template模板并重命名为其他

cp hive-env.sh.template hive-env.sh
cp hive-default.xml.template hive-site.xml

配置hive-env.sh文件,指定HADOOP_HOME

HADOOP_HOME=/usr/local/hadoop

4 修改hive-site.xml文件,指定MySQL数据库驱动、数据库名、用户名及密码,修改的内容如下所示

<property>
  <name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionURL</name>
  <value>jdbc:mysql://192.168.1.178:3306/hive?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true</value>
  <description>JDBC connect string for a JDBC metastore</description>
</property>
<property>
  <name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionDriverName</name>
  <value>com.mysql.jdbc.Driver</value>
  <description>Driver class name for a JDBC metastore</description>
</property>
<property>
  <name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionUserName</name>
  <value>hive</value>
  <description>username to use against metastore database</description>
</property>
<property>
  <name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionPassword</name>
  <value>hive</value>
  <description>password to use against metastore database</description>
</property>

其中:
javax.jdo.option.ConnectionURL参数指定的是Hive连接数据库的连接字符串;
javax.jdo.option.ConnectionDriverName参数指定的是驱动的类入口名称;
javax.jdo.option.ConnectionUserName参数指定了数据库的用户名;
javax.jdo.option.ConnectionPassword参数指定了数据库的密码。

5 缓存目录的问题,如果不配置也会出错的

 <property> 
 <name>hive.exec.local.scratchdir</name>
 <value>/home/hadoop/iotmp</value>
 <description>Local scratch space for Hive jobs</description>
 </property>
 <property>
 <name>hive.downloaded.resources.dir</name>
 <value>/home/hadoop/iotmp</value>
 <description>Temporary local directory for added resources in the remote file system.</description>
 </property>

并且需要对目录进行权限设定

mkdir -p /home/hadoop/iotmp 
chmod -R 775 /home/hadoop/iotmp

五修改hive/bin下的hive-config.sh文件,设置JAVA_HOME,HADOOP_HOME

export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm
export HADOOP_HOME=/usr/local/hadoop
export HIVE_HOME=/usr/local/hive

六 下载mysql-connector-java-5.1.27-bin.jar文件,并放到$HIVE_HOME/lib目录下

可以从Mysql的官方网站下载,但是记得一定要解压呀,下载的是一个tar.gz文件

七 在HDFS中创建/tmp和/user/hive/warehouse并设置权限

hadoop fs -mkdir /tmp
hadoop fs -mkdir -p /user/hive/warehouse
hadoop fs -chmod g+w /tmp
hadoop fs -chmod g+w /user/hive/warehouse

1 初始化meta数据库

进入之前需要初始化数据库

schematool -initSchema -dbType mysql

[email protected]:/usr/local/hive/lib$ schematool -initSchema -dbType mysql 
SLF4J: Class path contains multiple SLF4J bindings.
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/usr/local/hive/lib/log4j-slf4j-impl-2.4.1.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/usr/local/hadoop/share/hadoop/common/lib/slf4j-log4j12-1.7.10.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: See http://www.slf4j.org/codes.html#multiple_bindings for an explanation.
SLF4J: Actual binding is of type [org.apache.logging.slf4j.Log4jLoggerFactory]
Metastore connection URL: jdbc:mysql://192.168.1.166:3306/hive?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true
Metastore Connection Driver : com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
Metastore connection User: hive
Starting metastore schema initialization to 2.1.0
Initialization script hive-schema-2.1.0.mysql.sql
Initialization script completed
schemaTool completed

2 测试hive shell

hive
show databases;
show tables;

3可以在hadoop中查看hive生产的文件

hadoop dfs -ls /user/hive/warehouse

七 Hive shell使用实例

在正式讲解HiveQL之前,先在命令行下运行几样命令是有好处的,可以感受一下HiveQL是如何工作的,也可以自已随便探索一下.

1 创建数据(文本以tab分隔)

~ vi /home/cos/demo/t_hive.txt

16      2       3
61      12      13
41      2       31
17      21      3
71      2       31
1       12      34
11      2       34

2 创建新表

hive> CREATE TABLE t_hive (a int, b int, c int) ROW FORMAT DELIMITED FIELDS TERMINATED BY '\t';
OK
Time taken: 0.121 seconds

3 导入数据t_hive.txt到t_hive表

hive> LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH '/tmp/t_hive.txt' OVERWRITE INTO TABLE t_hive ;
Loading data to table default.t_hive
OK
Time taken: 0.609 seconds

4 查看表

hive> show tables;
OK
t_hive
Time taken: 0.099 seconds

5 正则匹配表名

hive>show tables '*t*';
OK
t_hive
Time taken: 0.065 seconds

6 查看表数据

hive> select * from t_hive;
OK
16      2       3
61      12      13
41      2       31
17      21      3
71      2       31
1       12      34
11      2       34
Time taken: 0.264 seconds

7 查看表结构

hive> desc t_hive;
OK
a       int
b       int
c       int
Time taken: 0.1 seconds

8 增加一个字段

hive> ALTER TABLE t_hive ADD COLUMNS (new_col String);
OK
Time taken: 0.186 seconds
hive> desc t_hive;
OK
a       int
b       int
c       int
new_col string
Time taken: 0.086 seconds

9 重命令表名

~ ALTER TABLE t_hive RENAME TO t_hadoop;
OK
Time taken: 0.45 seconds
hive> show tables;
OK
t_hadoop
Time taken: 0.07 seconds

10 删除表

hive> DROP TABLE t_hadoop;
OK
Time taken: 0.767 seconds

hive> show tables;
OK
Time taken: 0.064 seconds

八 使用beeline

HiveServer2提供了一个新的命令行工具Beeline,它是基于SQLLine CLI的JDBC客户端。 关于SQLLine的的知识,可以参考这个网站:http://sqlline.sourceforge.net/#manual

Beeline工作模式有两种,即本地嵌入模式和远程模式。嵌入模式情况下,它返回一个嵌入式的Hive(类似于Hive CLI)。而远程模式则是通过Thrift协议与某个单独的HiveServer2进程进行连接通信。下面给一个简单的登录Beeline的使用实例:

1 首先把驱动拷贝到Lib中

sudo cp jdbc/hive-jdbc-2.1.0-standalone.jar /usr/local/hive/lib/

2 启动hiveserver2的服务

命令行模式:

hive --service hiveserver2 --hiveconf hive.server2.thrift.port=10001

服务模式:

hiveserver2 start

3 执行操作

% bin/beeline
Hive version 0.11.0-SNAPSHOT by Apache
beeline> !connect jdbc:hive2://localhost:10000/default 
!connect jdbc:hive2://localhost:10000/default 
Connecting to jdbc:hive2://localhost:10000/default
Connected to: Hive (version 0.10.0)
Driver: Hive (version 0.10.0-SNAPSHOT)
Transaction isolation: TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ
0: jdbc:hive2://localhost:10000> show tables;
show tables;
+-------------------+
|     tab_name      |
+-------------------+
| primitives        |
| src               |
| src1              |
| src_json          |
| src_sequencefile  |
| src_thrift        |
| srcbucket         |
| srcbucket2        |
| srcpart           |
+-------------------+
9 rows selected (1.079 seconds)

九 FAQ

出错信息1

[email protected]:/usr/local/hive/conf$ hive 
SLF4J: Class path contains multiple SLF4J bindings.
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/usr/local/hive/lib/log4j-slf4j-impl-2.4.1.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/usr/local/hadoop/share/hadoop/common/lib/slf4j-log4j12-1.7.10.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: See http://www.slf4j.org/codes.html#multiple_bindings for an explanation.
SLF4J: Actual binding is of type [org.apache.logging.slf4j.Log4jLoggerFactory]

Logging initialized using configuration in jar:file:/usr/local/hive/lib/hive-common-2.1.0.jar!/hive-log4j2.properties Async: true
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.RuntimeException: org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.HiveException: org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.HiveException: MetaException(message:Hive metastore database is not initialized. Please use schematool (e.g. ./schematool -initSchema -dbType ...) to create the schema. If needed, don't forget to include the option to auto-create the underlying database in your JDBC connection string (e.g. ?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true for mysql))
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.session.SessionState.start(SessionState.java:578)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.session.SessionState.beginStart(SessionState.java:518)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.cli.CliDriver.run(CliDriver.java:705)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.cli.CliDriver.main(CliDriver.java:641)
 at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
 at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:57)
 at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
 at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:606)
 at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.run(RunJar.java:221)
 at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.main(RunJar.java:136)
Caused by: org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.HiveException: org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.HiveException: MetaException(message:Hive metastore database is not initialized. Please use schematool (e.g. ./schematool -initSchema -dbType ...) to create the schema. If needed, don't forget to include the option to auto-create the underlying database in your JDBC connection string (e.g. ?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true for mysql))
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.registerAllFunctionsOnce(Hive.java:226)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.<init>(Hive.java:366)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.create(Hive.java:310)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.getInternal(Hive.java:290)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.get(Hive.java:266)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.session.SessionState.start(SessionState.java:545)
 ... 9 more
Caused by: org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.HiveException: MetaException(message:Hive metastore database is not initialized. Please use schematool (e.g. ./schematool -initSchema -dbType ...) to create the schema. If needed, don't forget to include the option to auto-create the underlying database in your JDBC connection string (e.g. ?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true for mysql))
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.getAllFunctions(Hive.java:3593)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.reloadFunctions(Hive.java:236)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.registerAllFunctionsOnce(Hive.java:221)
 ... 14 more
Caused by: MetaException(message:Hive metastore database is not initialized. Please use schematool (e.g. ./schematool -initSchema -dbType ...) to create the schema. If needed, don't forget to include the option to auto-create the underlying database in your JDBC connection string (e.g. ?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true for mysql))
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.getMSC(Hive.java:3364)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.getMSC(Hive.java:3336)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.Hive.getAllFunctions(Hive.java:3590)
 ... 16 more

没有执行

schematool -initSchema -dbType mysql

执行之后搞定

出错信息2

 [email protected]:/usr/local/hive/lib$ hive 
SLF4J: Class path contains multiple SLF4J bindings.
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/usr/local/hive/lib/log4j-slf4j-impl-2.4.1.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/usr/local/hadoop/share/hadoop/common/lib/slf4j-log4j12-1.7.10.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: See http://www.slf4j.org/codes.html#multiple_bindings for an explanation.
SLF4J: Actual binding is of type [org.apache.logging.slf4j.Log4jLoggerFactory]

Logging initialized using configuration in jar:file:/usr/local/hive/lib/hive-common-2.1.0.jar!/hive-log4j2.properties Async: true
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: java.net.URISyntaxException: Relative path in absolute URI: ${system:java.io.tmpdir%7D/$%7Bsystem:user.name%7D
 at org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path.initialize(Path.java:205)
 at org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path.<init>(Path.java:171)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.session.SessionState.createSessionDirs(SessionState.java:631)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.session.SessionState.start(SessionState.java:550)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.session.SessionState.beginStart(SessionState.java:518)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.cli.CliDriver.run(CliDriver.java:705)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hive.cli.CliDriver.main(CliDriver.java:641)
 at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
 at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:57)
 at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
 at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:606)
 at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.run(RunJar.java:221)
 at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.main(RunJar.java:136)
Caused by: java.net.URISyntaxException: Relative path in absolute URI: ${system:java.io.tmpdir%7D/$%7Bsystem:user.name%7D
 at java.net.URI.checkPath(URI.java:1804)
 at java.net.URI.<init>(URI.java:752)
 at org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path.initialize(Path.java:202)
 ... 12 more

hive-site.xml中没有配置合理临时目录的问题

 <property> 
 <name>hive.exec.local.scratchdir</name>
 <value>/home/hadoop/iotmp</value>
 <description>Local scratch space for Hive jobs</description>
 </property>
 <property>
 <name>hive.downloaded.resources.dir</name>
 <value>/home/hadoop/iotmp</value>
 <description>Temporary local directory for added resources in the remote file system.</description>
 </property>
 <property>

并且需要对目录进行权限设定

mkdir -p /home/hadoop/iotmp
chmod -R 775 /home/hadoop/iotmp

参考文档

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